Thinking with type 2nd revised and expanded edition pdf


    Second, revised and expanded edition. No part of this book may be used or Thinking with type: a critical guide for designers, writers, editors. Thinking with Type, 2nd revised and expanded edition: A Critical Guide for Designers, Writers, Editors, & Students[ebook] by Ellen Lupton (PDF). Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd Second, revised and expanded edition 2nd —Kevin C. Lippert, publisher rev. and expanded ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical This new book has more of everything: more fonts. introduction Since the first edition of Thinking with Type appeared in a volume.

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    Thinking With Type 2nd Revised And Expanded Edition Pdf

    Thinking with type: a critical guide for designers, writers, editors, & students / Ellen Lupton. — 2nd rev. and expanded ed. p. cm. Includes. CENTURY EXPANDED. Designed by Morris thinking ap. GE* eges. I berg. 1 type. A CRITICAL GUIDE. FOR DESIGNERS,. WRITERS, EDITORS, ist ed. p. cm. - (Design briefs). Includes bibliographical references. ISBN o ( alk. See the Glog! Thinking with Type, 2nd revised and expanded edition by Ellen Lupton pdf epub txt mobi: text, images, music, video | Glogster EDU - Interactive.

    Mark Lamster Second edition: Nicola Bednarek For a free catalog of books, call 1. Visit our web site at www. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in primary typefaces any manner without written permission from the Scala Pro, designed by Martin Majoor publisher, except in the context of reviews. Thesis, designed by Luc as de Groot. Every reasonable attempt has been made to identify special thanks to owners of copyright. Lippert, publisher rev. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN alk. Graphic design Typography 2. L87 Alignment Exercise: Hierarchy Spaces and Punctuation 58 Punctuation Exercise:

    Typography is an ongoing tradition that connects you with other designers. This book is about thinking with typography—in the end. Technology has shaped the design of typographic space.

    Each section opens with a narrative essay about the cultural and theoretical issues that fuel typographic design across a range of media. Text has evolved from a closed. Throughout the book. The demonstration pages that follow each essay show not just how typography is structured. The second section. With the rise of digital design tools. Type is with you everywhere you go—the street. Dada and Futurist artists attacked the rectilinear constraints of metal type and exposed the mechanical grid of letterpress.

    This book aims to speak to. In the early twentieth century. Their work. The abstractions of neoclassicism bred the strange progeny of nineteenth-century commercial typography. Brockett Horne. Elke Gasselseder.

    Fred Lazarus. In I enrolled in the Doctorate in Communications Design program at the University of Baltimore and completed my degree in My teachers. My colleagues at MICA have built a distinctive design culture at the school.

    The title of this book. My friends—Jennifer Tobias. For me. Mark Lamster. The editor of the second edition. Back then. I am indebted to my teachers at the Cooper Union. Guna Nadarajan. Nicola Bednarek. Jay and Ruby. I learn something every day from my children. Edward Bottone. Thinking with Type. Abbott Miller. William Noel. Numerous designers and scholars helped me along the way. What I really learned from my teachers was not rules and facts but how to think: Eric Karnes.

    Matteo Bologna. Jennifer Cole Phillips. Hans Lijklema. William Bevington. My husband. Claudia Matzko. I thank Kevin Lippert. Capital letters are stored in a drawer above the minuscule letters. Frank S. In a letterpress printing shop. Graphic designers sometimes create their own typefaces and custom lettering. More commonly. Typefaces are an essential resource employed by graphic designers. Movable type. Movable type had been employed earlier in China but had proven less useful there.

    It is a book about how to use them. Design Writing Research: Writing on Graphic Design New York: Whereas the Chinese writing system contains tens of thousands of distinct characters. Words originated as gestures of the body.

    Thinking with Type, 2nd revised and expanded edition by Ellen Lupton pdf epub txt mobi

    Whereas scribes had previously manufactured books and documents by hand. These tensions. To do this with wit and wisdom requires knowledge of how—and why— letterforms have evolved. Emulating the dense. Nunc eu erat. Integer pharetra.

    As scala was introduced in by the Noordzij explains. This digitally constructed neque. Although somewhat rounder. Mauris ac mi euthan Centaur. Mauris pharetra pede urna ac isandlessdecorative mannered ac mi eu purus tincidunt neque. Adobe Jenson stroke.

    Mauris ac mi eu purus font captures the tincidunt faucibus. His recapture the dark letters have strong vertical and solemn stems. Proin volutpat dynamic. Lorem ipsum dolor sit Lorem amet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. Aldus Manutius. The preference for lettera antica was part of the Renaissance rebirth of classical art and literature.

    Some revivals are based on metal types. While the upright humanist scripts appeared in expensively produced books. Each revival responds to—or reacts against—the production methods. Aldus Manutius often paired cursive letters with roman for Aldus Manutius. Letterletter Paris. Many typefaces we use today. Hartley and coordinated into a larger Marks. The capitals. Italic letters. For calligraphers. His typefaces merged the gothic traditions he had known in France and Germany with the Italian taste for rounder.

    Nicolas Jenson. Regarding the press of Louis XIV. Instructed by letter A. A royal typeface Modesty and Chastity are romain du roi was then required. He aimed to surpass Caslon by creating sharply detailed letters with more vivid contrast between thick and thin elements.

    The French designer and typographer Geofroy Tory published a series of diagrams in that linked the anatomy of letters to the anatomy of man. Hartley and between thick and thin. Their typefaces—which have a wholly vertical axis.

    Readers in the Nation. Engraved reproductions of penmanship disseminated the work of the great eighteenth- century writing masters.

    Giambattista Bodoni in Italy and Limited. John narrow. Baskerville of Birmingham: Letter-Founder and Printer Baskerville made his own inks and hot-pressed his pages after printing.

    The Elements of Typographic extremes. The romain du roi was designed not by a typographer but by a government committee consisting of two priests. For the full letter. The typefaces cut by the Didot family in France were even more abstract and severe than those of Baskerville. In addition to a roman text face. Printed by John Baskerville. The typefaces created by Baskerville in the eighteenth century were remarkable—even shocking— in their day for their sharp.

    Brown and Company. Printed by Firmin Didot. The American Museum. Courtesy of the Boston Public Library.

    Thinking with Type Pdf Free Download

    Volume 1 This eighteenth-century essay is an early example of expressive typography. The terms Long Primer. As the two men toss attacks at each other. Great Primer. Pica Roman. Double Pica. The author. Hopkinson was no stranger to design. These faces advertisements often combined exaggerated the polarization fonts of varying style and of letters into thick and thin proportion on a single page. Introduced in Gothic letters command slab. Although sans-serif slab serif asserts its own weight letters were later associated with and mass.

    What did this mean? Who was I? What was I?. Accursed creator! Why did you create a monster so hideous that even you turned away from me in disgust? As an independent attention with their massive architectural component.

    Nineteenth-century nineteenth century. Type designers created big. For extensive analysis and examples of decorated types. The introduction of the letters in the nineteenth century. Fonts of astonishing height. In search of a beauty both rational and sublime. Bodoni and Didot had created a monster: See also Ruari McLean.

    Da Capo Press. Critical Writings on Typography. In contrast. With the rise of industrialization and mass consumption in the nineteenth century came the explosion of advertising. Meggs New York: Allworth Press.

    The pantograph is a tracing device that. The relationships among letters in a typeface became more important than the identity of individual characters. The search for archetypal. Steven Heller and Philip B. American Wood Type: A dozen different fonts are used in this poster for a steamship cruise. The rise of advertising in the nineteenth century stimulated demand for large-scale letters that could command attention in urban space.

    A size and style of typeface has been chosen for each line to maximize the scale of the letters in the space allotted. Although the typefaces are exotic.

    Locust swarms of print. Applied here to the letterhead of the Union of Revolutionary Socialists. Consisting only of lowercase letters. Futura is a practical. The De Stijl movement called for the reduction of painting. Although it is strongly geometric. Like the popular printers of the nineteenth century.

    Edward Johnston revived the search for an essential. Hyphen Press. The modern design reformer was a critic of society. Assembled like machines from modular components. Although reformers like Johnston remained romantically attached to history.

    While deriding as elements of a universal language of vision. The avant-garde artists of the early twentieth century rejected historical forms but adopted the model of the critical outsider.

    Writing in Paul Renner: The Art digitally. Yet most were produced by hand On Futura. These types can be used in light. The calming. Futura with subtle variations in stroke.

    Perspectives designed Futura in numerous weights. Members of the De Stijl group in the Netherlands reduced the alphabet to perpendicular elements.

    On the experimental typeface. The Look Back continue evolving as a visual ethos in print and digital media. She and her husband. In Zuzana Licko Garamond a in contrast with his own new alphabet. New Alphabet Amsterdam: Total Design. Gingko Press. Rudy VanderLans. Selections from Emigre Magazine.

    Living with computers gives funny ideas. In a brochure promoting his new alphabet. Rejecting centuries of typographic convention. Licko embraced Wim Crouwel. By the early s. Van Nostrand Reinhold. While various signage systems and Graphic Design into the Digital digital output devices still rely on bitmap fonts today. While other digital fonts imposed the coarse grid of screen displays structure of the screen.

    See and dot-matrix printers onto traditional typographic forms. Collection of the Cooper- Hewitt. National Design Museum. His posters for the Detroit Focus Gallery feature damaged and defective forms.

    The only limitations are in our expectations.. After Template Gothic was released commercially by Emigre Fonts.

    Dead History: The industrial methods of producing typography meant that all letters had to be identical. He also embraced the burden of history and precedent. By manipulating the vectors of readymade fonts. Template Gothic: Makela adopted the sampling strategy employed in contemporary art and music.

    The Dutch typographers Erik van Blokland and Just van Rossum have combined the roles of designer and programmer. Deck designed Template Gothic while he was a student of Ed Fella.

    The typeface thus refers to a process that is at once mechanical and manual. Mrs Eaves was joined by Mr Eaves. These typefaces look back to sixteenth-century printing from a contemporary point of view. Her typeface Mrs Eaves. Mrs Eaves: In When choosing a typeface.

    With its distinctive yet utilitarian style. By Fred Smeijers and Rudy Geeraerts. Shown here is Arnhem. Bruce Mau. In this postindustrial manifesto. Dan Meyers. The x-height usually occupies more than half of the cap height. This is the most stable bottom of letters hang slightly or the height of a lowercase x. Commas excluding its ascenders and is a crucial edge for aligning text and semicolons also cross the descenders.

    If a typeface were not positioned this way. The larger the x-height is in relation Hey. Body x-height is the height of the the baseline is where all the overhang The curves at the main body of the lowercase letter letters sit. Without overhang. Although kids learn to write using ruled paper that divides letters exactly in half. Two blocks of text are often aligned along to the cap height. A typeface is measured from the top of the millimeters.

    Thinking With Type 2nd Ed (Design Briefs): Ellen Lupton: Books

    This distorts the line weight of the letters. The set width is the body of the letter plus a sliver of space that protects it The set width is the body of the letter plus the space beside it. Most software applications capital letter to the let the designer choose a preferred unit of bottom of the lowest measure.

    Instead of torturing a letterform. The proportions of the letters have been digitally distorted in order to create wider or narrower letters.

    The width of a letter is intrinsic to the proportions and visual impression of the tight wad typeface. Wide load however. Some typefaces have a narrow set width. The point system is the standard used 6 picas today. Twelve points equal one pica. The same scaled in a page of printed text.

    A line of text that legible at small sizes. Helvetica can remain The size of a typeface is a matter of context. Helvetica can look quite elegant. Set in 8 pts for a magazine looks tiny on a television screen may appear appropriately caption.

    Smaller proportions affect typeface could look bulky and bland. Although this generally creates readable type on screen displays. Mrs Eaves. Differences in x-height. This typeface.

    Sizes between 9 and 11 pts are common for printed text. The couple lived together for sixteen years before marrying in His loose letterspacing also within the overall point size. Little pt helvetica pt mrs eaves pt mr eaves The x-height of a typeface affects its Typefaces with small x-heights. Like those with big lower bodies. This caption is 7. A diminutive x-height is a 12 pts tall on a business card. Big versus Mrs. When two typefaces are set in the same point size.

    Margaret Thatcher. Richard Nixon. Grapes of Wrath pt garamond 3 pt itc garamond The lean forms of Garamond 3 appeared during the Great Depression. Van Halen. Osama Bin Laden.

    The Sopranos. Franklin D. Matthew Barney. Duke pt garamond 3. Claes Oldenburg. A use at 24 pts. When a text-sized letterform is ranging from 6 to 8 pts. The graphic designer selects a style based on context. They are designed for sizes production. A adobe garamond premiere pro regular This mechanized approach to type sizes Caption styles are built with became the norm for photo and digital type the heaviest stroke weight. Each size required a unique typeface design. Optical sizes Too Small designed for headlines or display tend to have pt bodoni 8-pt bodoni delicate.

    Their features are strong economized by simply enlarging or reducing a base and meaty but not too assertive. Display styles are intended for other features. New York City. Scale is relative. People intuitively judge the size of objects in relation to their own bodies and environments. Scale is and arbitrary. Large-scale text creates impact in this public installation. Changes in scale help create Minimal differences in The strong contrast between type size make this type sizes gives this design visual contrast.

    Stephen Doyle. Cropping the letters increases their sense of scale. Warren Niedich. The overlapping colors suggest an extreme detail of a printed or photographic process. The designers built simple world maps from country abbreviation codes GBR. HIV incidence. Gerwin Schmidt. The contrast between the big type and the small pages creates drama and surprise. Its uniform. When the eighteenth and early nineteenth Sabon was designed by typefaces of John Baskerville centuries are radically abstract.

    Aa Aa Aa futura gill sans helvetica humanist sans serif transitional sans serif geometric sans serif Sans-serif typefaces became Helvetica. Note the thin. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. Designers in the nineteenth century for use in advertising. Gill Sans. A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth Aa clarendon century.

    These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Note the small. Jan Tschichold in These of the A and M are sharp and the calligraphic variations fonts are also referred to as triangles.

    It is a book about Selecting type with wit and wisdom 14 pt how to use them. Typefaces are essential resources requires knowledge for the graphic designer. Typefaces are essential resources for the wit and wisdom requires knowledge of graphic designer. It is a book about how Selecting type with wit 14 pt and wisdom requires to use them.

    Typefaces are essential resources for the knowledge graphic designer. Typefaces are essential resources for the requires knowledge of graphic designer.

    Typefaces are essential resources wit and wisdom requires knowledge for the graphic designer. It is a book about Selecting type with 14 pt how to use them.

    Typefaces are essential resources for the and wisdom requires knowledge of how graphic designer. It is a book about how Selecting type with wit 14 pt to use them. It is a book about how Selecting type with wit and wisdom 14 pt to use them. It is a book about how Selecting type with 14 pt to use them. It is a book about how Selecting type with 14 pt wit and wisdom to use them.

    Note the differences between the roman and italic a. Many designers prefer not to use bold and semi-bold versions of traditional typefaces such as Garamond. The concept was formalized in the early twentieth century. It is typically conceived as the parent of a larger family.

    Bold and semibold typefaces each need to include an italic version. Italics are not slanted letters. Especially among serif faces. Bold and semibold typefaces are used for emphasis within a hierarchy. Sans-serif families often include a broad range of weights thin. The counters need to stay clear and open at small sizes.

    In the type family Quadraat. Small capitals are slightly taller than the x-height of lowercase letters. Although the typeface is classical and conservative. This magazine cover uses the Garamond 3 typeface family in various sizes. Dave Eggers. Whereas some type families grow over time. Sans- serif families often come in many more weights Scala Scala Sans Light and sizes.

    Scala Pro OpenType scala jewel diamond format was released in The inclusion of the fat face style. Small capitals and non-lining numerals once found only in serif fonts are included in scala pro. Univers and fat face. Scala Pro. The serif and sans- SCala jewel crystal serif forms have a common spine. Scala Italic Scala Sans and condensed. He designed twenty-one versions of Univers. The Serif black roman The Serif medium roman graphic designers will tap the vast Selecting type with wit and wisdom The Serif extra bold roman The Serif semi light store of already existing typefaces.

    Typefaces The Serif medium roman are essential resources for the graphic designer. These tensions the sans medium italic marked the birth of printed letters five centuries ago. Writing in Germany. Whereas documents and the sans black roman the sans medium roman in the West was revolutionized early books had previously been written by the sans extra bold roman the sans semi light roman in the Renaissance.

    But most regard to the audience or situation. Chris Dixon. Rather than Mixing Small Caps with type crime adjusted leading Capitals. These automatically generated characters look puny and starved. This page detail mixes serif types from the Miller family including true Small Caps with the sans- serif family Verlag. When working with OpenType fonts labeled Pro. Alice Litscher. Running text is set in Glypha. Keita Takahashi fait escale en France.

    Tom Vac Rouge. Pantone Chair Orange.

    Potatohead and Mrs. Give each ingredient a role to play: Yet another weight appears on the bottom line. Pearbutt Too close for comfort These two type styles are too similar to provide a counter- adobe garamond pro bold and adobe jenson pro bold point to each other. Try mixing big. Strive for contrast rather than harmony. When placing typefaces on separate lines. When mixing typefaces on the same line.

    Start with a small number of elements representing different colors. Originally commissioned by Abbott Miller for exclusive use by the Guggenheim Museum. This quirky. Verlag has become a widely used general-purpose typeface. These diverse ingredients are mixed here at different scales to create typographic tension and contrast. This content-intensive page detail mixes four different type families from various points in history. Miller Small Caps.

    Known typeface from Different math numerals. Non-lining numerals. Devoting just four hours per day to to the task. If you can read words per minute. The cover price What is the cost of War and Peace? Non-lining numerals returned to turn of the twentieth century to meet the needs of favor in the s. The lining numerals appear styles. Like letterforms. Smaller currency symbols look better with non-lining large. But what about the human cost in terms of hours squan.

    Devoting just four hours per day War and Peace. Lining numerals are the same appearance and their traditional typographic height as capital letters. They were introduced around the lowercase letters. The different weights of Retina have matching set widths. The numerals are designed to line up into columns. You can also use the Optical Margin See appendix for more punctuation blunders..

    Know thy keystrokes! Alignment or Indent to Here tools. Pressing the option key. To create hanging punctuation in InDesign. Double and single quotation marks are quotation marks set off dialogue represented with four distinct characters.

    There is no excuse for such gross negligence. Millions of dollars a year are spent producing commercial signs that are fraught with typographic misdoings. While some of these signs are cheaply made over-the-counter products. In InDesign or Illustrator. Collection of Jan Tholenaar. Themed collections of icons and illustrations are also available as digital fonts. For centuries. Reinoud Tholenaar. In the nineteenth century. In the letterpress era. Distributed by T Saskia Ottenhoff-Tholenaar.

    Marian Bantjes. Decorative rules served to frame and divide content. The designer repeated a single ornament from the font Whirligigs.

    Designers create lettering by hand and with software, often combining diverse techniques. Deanne Cheuk, — These magazine headlines combine drawing and painting with digital techniques.

    Nolen Strals. Hand lettering is a vibrant force in graphic design, as seen in these music posters. Lettering is the basis of many digital typefaces, but nothing is quite as potent as the real thing.

    Many type designers collaborate with graphic designers to create typefaces that are unique to a given client. Jochen Stankowski. A complete visual identity can consist of colors. Sometimes a logotype becomes the basis for the design of a complete typeface. Logotypes can be built with existing typefaces or with custom-drawn letterforms.

    A logotype is part of an overall visual brand. Whereas some trademarks consist of an abstract symbol or a pictorial icon. The letters in the custom typeface are designed to split apart into elements that can be mirrored. This ambitious visual identity program uses custom letterforms based on the typeface Agenda. Identity design: Joshua Distler. Mike Abbink. Paul van der Laan. Custom typeface design: This elaborate identity program for a Mexican bank uses a custom typeface whose blocky forms are inspired by Mayan glyphs.

    Gabor Schreier. These elements work together to express the personality of the brand. The designers use techniques such as outlining. A logotype is part of a larger graphic language.

    Designed by Jason Santa Maria for and Fedra. Georgia is a serif screen face built with sturdy strokes. Since then. Prior to the rise of font embedding. Another used on the web. Verdana has a large x-height. Georgia is widely designers pay a fee for the service. Designed by Matthew party server and then downloaded by users. Designers or site owners which support global languages including Arabic and Hindi. In one approach. Greta Bobulate Website. Carter in for Microsoft.

    This site design uses Typekit. Typekit deters exchange for a one-time license fee. Simple bitmapped letters are animated in three-dimensional space. When displayed at very small sizes. Photoshop and other software packages allow designers to select strong or weak anti-aliasing. Peter Cho. Most contemporary bitmap typefaces are not true bitmaps. Enlarge 9-pixel type to Many designers like to exploit the visible geometry of pixelated characters.

    While a PostScript letter consists of a vector outline. Designed for display on screen at low resolutions. This Emigre. True bitmap characters are used on devices such as cash registers.

    They are drawn as outlines on a grid and then output as PostScript. Released in Lo-Res Narrow consists of a series of different sizes.

    Thus they can be easily used with any standard layout software. Elementar is a bitmap type family consisting of dozens of weights and styles made by manipulating common parameters such as height. Elementar is suitable for print. Some typeface is an enormous task. House Industries is a digital type foundry that creates original typefaces inspired by popular culture and design history.

    Castaways is from a series of typefaces based on commercial signs from Las Vegas. Designer Ken Barber makes pencil drawings by hand and then digitizes the outlines. Art and type direction: Andy Cruz. Begin by drawing a few core letters. Typeface design: Will the letters be serif or sans serif? The shapes of the letters recall the handpainted strokes made by traditional sign painters and lettering artists. Font engineering: Rich Roat. All the Photoshop.

    You can control the spacing of the typeface by Will you use them for display or for text? Will you adding blank areas next to each character as well as work with historic source material or invent the creating kerning pairs that determine the distance characters more or less from scratch? Will you construct and proportions. In a digital typeface.

    Many such proofs are made during the design process. The notes marked on the proof below comment on everything from the width or weight of a letter to the size and shape of a serif. The designer then adjusts each variant to ensure legibility and visual consistency.

    In a large type family. Mercury is a typeface designed for modern newspapers. The project also speaks to the structure of digital technologies. This exercise looks back to the s and s. Substitute the curves and diagonals of traditional letterforms with gridded and rectilinear elements.

    Type I fonts are output using many different formats? Some come loaded with the PostScript programming language. If you want to expand your vocabulary beyond OpenType. With any font. Is the noema an aspect of the object intended, or rather a medium of intention? For Husserl, then, phenomenology integrates a kind of psychology with a kind of logic.

    It develops a descriptive or analytic psychology in that it describes and analyzes types of subjective mental activity or experience, in short, acts of consciousness. Yet it develops a kind of logic—a theory of meaning today we say logical semantics —in that it describes and analyzes objective contents of consciousness: ideas, concepts, images, propositions, in short, ideal meanings of various types that serve as intentional contents, or noematic meanings, of various types of experience.

    These contents are shareable by different acts of consciousness, and in that sense they are objective, ideal meanings. Following Bolzano and to some extent the platonistic logician Hermann Lotze , Husserl opposed any reduction of logic or mathematics or science to mere psychology, to how people happen to think, and in the same spirit he distinguished phenomenology from mere psychology. For Husserl, phenomenology would study consciousness without reducing the objective and shareable meanings that inhabit experience to merely subjective happenstances.

    Ideal meaning would be the engine of intentionality in acts of consciousness. With theoretical foundations laid in the Investigations, Husserl would then promote the radical new science of phenomenology in Ideas I And alternative visions of phenomenology would soon follow. The History and Varieties of Phenomenology Phenomenology came into its own with Husserl, much as epistemology came into its own with Descartes, and ontology or metaphysics came into its own with Aristotle on the heels of Plato.

    Yet phenomenology has been practiced, with or without the name, for many centuries. When Hindu and Buddhist philosophers reflected on states of consciousness achieved in a variety of meditative states, they were practicing phenomenology.

    When Descartes, Hume, and Kant characterized states of perception, thought, and imagination, they were practicing phenomenology. When Brentano classified varieties of mental phenomena defined by the directedness of consciousness , he was practicing phenomenology.

    When William James appraised kinds of mental activity in the stream of consciousness including their embodiment and their dependence on habit , he too was practicing phenomenology. And when recent analytic philosophers of mind have addressed issues of consciousness and intentionality, they have often been practicing phenomenology. Still, the discipline of phenomenology, its roots tracing back through the centuries, came to full flower in Husserl. The diversity of traditional phenomenology is apparent in the Encyclopedia of Phenomenology Kluwer Academic Publishers, , Dordrecht and Boston , which features separate articles on some seven types of phenomenology.

    The most famous of the classical phenomenologists were Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, and Merleau-Ponty. In these four thinkers we find different conceptions of phenomenology, different methods, and different results. A brief sketch of their differences will capture both a crucial period in the history of phenomenology and a sense of the diversity of the field of phenomenology.

    In his Logical Investigations —01 Husserl outlined a complex system of philosophy, moving from logic to philosophy of language, to ontology theory of universals and parts of wholes , to a phenomenological theory of intentionality, and finally to a phenomenological theory of knowledge. Then in Ideas I he focused squarely on phenomenology itself. In this spirit, we may say phenomenology is the study of consciousness—that is, conscious experience of various types—as experienced from the first-person point of view.

    In this discipline we study different forms of experience just as we experience them, from the perspective of the subject living through or performing them. Thus, we characterize experiences of seeing, hearing, imagining, thinking, feeling i. However, not just any characterization of an experience will do. Phenomenological analysis of a given type of experience will feature the ways in which we ourselves would experience that form of conscious activity. And the leading property of our familiar types of experience is their intentionality, their being a consciousness of or about something, something experienced or presented or engaged in a certain way.

    How I see or conceptualize or understand the object I am dealing with defines the meaning of that object in my current experience. Thus, phenomenology features a study of meaning, in a wide sense that includes more than what is expressed in language.

    In Ideas I Husserl presented phenomenology with a transcendental turn. We thereby turn our attention, in reflection, to the structure of our own conscious experience. Our first key result is the observation that each act of consciousness is a consciousness of something, that is, intentional, or directed toward something.

    Consider my visual experience wherein I see a tree across the square. In phenomenological reflection, we need not concern ourselves with whether the tree exists: my experience is of a tree whether or not such a tree exists. However, we do need to concern ourselves with how the object is meant or intended.

    I see a Eucalyptus tree, not a Yucca tree; I see that object as a Eucalyptus, with a certain shape, with bark stripping off, etc. Thus, bracketing the tree itself, we turn our attention to my experience of the tree, and specifically to the content or meaning in my experience. This tree-as-perceived Husserl calls the noema or noematic sense of the experience. Philosophers succeeding Husserl debated the proper characterization of phenomenology, arguing over its results and its methods.

    And they were not alone. Heidegger had his own ideas about phenomenology. In Being and Time Heidegger unfurled his rendition of phenomenology. By contrast, Heidegger held that our more basic ways of relating to things are in practical activities like hammering, where the phenomenology reveals our situation in a context of equipment and in being-with-others.

    Much of Being and Time develops an existential interpretation of our modes of being including, famously, our being-toward-death. In a very different style, in clear analytical prose, in the text of a lecture course called The Basic Problems of Phenomenology , Heidegger traced the question of the meaning of being from Aristotle through many other thinkers into the issues of phenomenology.

    Our understanding of beings and their being comes ultimately through phenomenology. Heidegger questioned the contemporary concern with technology, and his writing might suggest that our scientific theories are historical artifacts that we use in technological practice, rather than systems of ideal truth as Husserl had held.

    Our deep understanding of being, in our own case, comes rather from phenomenology, Heidegger held. In the s phenomenology migrated from Austrian and then German philosophy into French philosophy. In the novel Nausea Jean-Paul Sartre described a bizarre course of experience in which the protagonist, writing in the first person, describes how ordinary objects lose their meaning until he encounters pure being at the foot of a chestnut tree, and in that moment recovers his sense of his own freedom.

    In Being and Nothingness , written partly while a prisoner of war , Sartre developed his conception of phenomenological ontology. Consciousness is a consciousness of objects, as Husserl had stressed. The chestnut tree I see is, for Sartre, such a phenomenon in my consciousness. For Sartre, the practice of phenomenology proceeds by a deliberate reflection on the structure of consciousness. Sartre wrote many plays and novels and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. In Phenomenology of Perception Merleau-Ponty developed a rich variety of phenomenology emphasizing the role of the body in human experience.

    Unlike Husserl, Heidegger, and Sartre, Merleau-Ponty looked to experimental psychology, analyzing the reported experience of amputees who felt sensations in a phantom limb. Merleau-Ponty rejected both associationist psychology, focused on correlations between sensation and stimulus, and intellectualist psychology, focused on rational construction of the world in the mind. Think of the behaviorist and computationalist models of mind in more recent decades of empirical psychology.

    For the body image is neither in the mental realm nor in the mechanical-physical realm. Rather, my body is, as it were, me in my engaged action with things I perceive including other people. The scope of Phenomenology of Perception is characteristic of the breadth of classical phenomenology, not least because Merleau-Ponty drew with generosity on Husserl, Heidegger, and Sartre while fashioning his own innovative vision of phenomenology.

    His phenomenology addressed the role of attention in the phenomenal field, the experience of the body, the spatiality of the body, the motility of the body, the body in sexual being and in speech, other selves, temporality, and the character of freedom so important in French existentialism. In the years since Husserl, Heidegger, et al.

    Interpretation of historical texts by Husserl et al. Since the s, philosophers trained in the methods of analytic philosophy have also dug into the foundations of phenomenology, with an eye to 20th century work in philosophy of logic, language, and mind. Analytic phenomenology picks up on that connection. For Husserl, similarly, an experience or act of consciousness intends or refers to an object by way of a noema or noematic sense: thus, two experiences may refer to the same object but have different noematic senses involving different ways of presenting the object for example, in seeing the same object from different sides.

    Indeed, for Husserl, the theory of intentionality is a generalization of the theory of linguistic reference: as linguistic reference is mediated by sense, so intentional reference is mediated by noematic sense. More recently, analytic philosophers of mind have rediscovered phenomenological issues of mental representation, intentionality, consciousness, sensory experience, intentional content, and context-of-thought.

    Some researchers have begun to combine phenomenological issues with issues of neuroscience and behavioral studies and mathematical modeling. Such studies will extend the methods of traditional phenomenology as the Zeitgeist moves on. We address philosophy of mind below. Phenomenology and Ontology, Epistemology, Logic, Ethics The discipline of phenomenology forms one basic field in philosophy among others. How is phenomenology distinguished from, and related to, other fields in philosophy?

    Traditionally, philosophy includes at least four core fields or disciplines: ontology, epistemology, ethics, logic. Suppose phenomenology joins that list. Consider then these elementary definitions of field: Ontology is the study of beings or their being—what is.

    Epistemology is the study of knowledge—how we know. Logic is the study of valid reasoning—how to reason. Ethics is the study of right and wrong—how we should act. Phenomenology is the study of our experience—how we experience. The domains of study in these five fields are clearly different, and they seem to call for different methods of study. Historically it may be argued , Socrates and Plato put ethics first, then Aristotle put metaphysics or ontology first, then Descartes put epistemology first, then Russell put logic first, and then Husserl in his later transcendental phase put phenomenology first.

    Consider epistemology. As we saw, phenomenology helps to define the phenomena on which knowledge claims rest, according to modern epistemology. On the other hand, phenomenology itself claims to achieve knowledge about the nature of consciousness, a distinctive kind of first-person knowledge, through a form of intuition.

    Consider logic. As we saw, logical theory of meaning led Husserl into the theory of intentionality, the heart of phenomenology. On one account, phenomenology explicates the intentional or semantic force of ideal meanings, and propositional meanings are central to logical theory. But logical structure is expressed in language, either ordinary language or symbolic languages like those of predicate logic or mathematics or computer systems.

    It remains an important issue of debate where and whether language shapes specific forms of experience thought, perception, emotion and their content or meaning. So there is an important if disputed relation between phenomenology and logico-linguistic theory, especially philosophical logic and philosophy of language as opposed to mathematical logic per se. Consider ontology. Phenomenology studies among other things the nature of consciousness, which is a central issue in metaphysics or ontology, and one that leads into the traditional mind-body problem.

    Husserlian methodology would bracket the question of the existence of the surrounding world, thereby separating phenomenology from the ontology of the world. Now consider ethics. Phenomenology might play a role in ethics by offering analyses of the structure of will, valuing, happiness, and care for others in empathy and sympathy. Historically, though, ethics has been on the horizon of phenomenology. Husserl largely avoided ethics in his major works, though he featured the role of practical concerns in the structure of the life-world or of Geist spirit, or culture, as in Zeitgeist , and he once delivered a course of lectures giving ethics like logic a basic place in philosophy, indicating the importance of the phenomenology of sympathy in grounding ethics.

    Beauvoir sketched an existentialist ethics, and Sartre left unpublished notebooks on ethics. However, an explicitly phenomenological approach to ethics emerged in the works of Emannuel Levinas, a Lithuanian phenomenologist who heard Husserl and Heidegger in Freiburg before moving to Paris.

    Allied with ethics are political and social philosophy. Sartre and Merleau-Ponty were politically engaged in s Paris, and their existential philosophies phenomenologically based suggest a political theory based in individual freedom. Sartre later sought an explicit blend of existentialism with Marxism.

    Still, political theory has remained on the borders of phenomenology. Social theory, however, has been closer to phenomenology as such. Husserl analyzed the phenomenological structure of the life-world and Geist generally, including our role in social activity. Heidegger stressed social practice, which he found more primordial than individual consciousness.

    Alfred Schutz developed a phenomenology of the social world. Sartre continued the phenomenological appraisal of the meaning of the other, the fundamental social formation. Moving outward from phenomenological issues, Michel Foucault studied the genesis and meaning of social institutions, from prisons to insane asylums.

    Classical phenomenology, then, ties into certain areas of epistemology, logic, and ontology, and leads into parts of ethical, social, and political theory. Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind It ought to be obvious that phenomenology has a lot to say in the area called philosophy of mind.

    Yet the traditions of phenomenology and analytic philosophy of mind have not been closely joined, despite overlapping areas of interest. So it is appropriate to close this survey of phenomenology by addressing philosophy of mind, one of the most vigorously debated areas in recent philosophy. The tradition of analytic philosophy began, early in the 20th century, with analyses of language, notably in the works of Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. Then in The Concept of Mind Gilbert Ryle developed a series of analyses of language about different mental states, including sensation, belief, and will.

    Though Ryle is commonly deemed a philosopher of ordinary language, Ryle himself said The Concept of Mind could be called phenomenology.

    In effect, Ryle analyzed our phenomenological understanding of mental states as reflected in ordinary language about the mind. Centuries later, phenomenology would find, with Brentano and Husserl, that mental acts are characterized by consciousness and intentionality, while natural science would find that physical systems are characterized by mass and force, ultimately by gravitational, electromagnetic, and quantum fields.

    Where do we find consciousness and intentionality in the quantum-electromagnetic-gravitational field that, by hypothesis, orders everything in the natural world in which we humans and our minds exist? That is the mind-body problem today. In short, phenomenology by any other name lies at the heart of the contemporary mind-body problem. After Ryle, philosophers sought a more explicit and generally naturalistic ontology of mind.

    In the s materialism was argued anew, urging that mental states are identical with states of the central nervous system.

    A stronger materialism holds, instead, that each type of mental state is identical with a type of brain state. But materialism does not fit comfortably with phenomenology. For it is not obvious how conscious mental states as we experience them—sensations, thoughts, emotions—can simply be the complex neural states that somehow subserve or implement them.

    If mental states and neural states are simply identical, in token or in type, where in our scientific theory of mind does the phenomenology occur—is it not simply replaced by neuroscience? And yet experience is part of what is to be explained by neuroscience.

    In the late s and s the computer model of mind set in, and functionalism became the dominant model of mind. On this model, mind is not what the brain consists in electrochemical transactions in neurons in vast complexes. Instead, mind is what brains do: their function of mediating between information coming into the organism and behavior proceeding from the organism.

    Thus, a mental state is a functional state of the brain or of the human or animal organism. Since the s the cognitive sciences—from experimental studies of cognition to neuroscience—have tended toward a mix of materialism and functionalism. Gradually, however, philosophers found that phenomenological aspects of the mind pose problems for the functionalist paradigm too.

    Many philosophers pressed the case that sensory qualia—what it is like to feel pain, to see red, etc. Consciousness has properties of its own. And yet, we know, it is closely tied to the brain. And, at some level of description, neural activities implement computation. In the s John Searle argued in Intentionality and further in The Rediscovery of the Mind that intentionality and consciousness are essential properties of mental states.

    Searle also argued that computers simulate but do not have mental states characterized by intentionality. As Searle argued, a computer system has a syntax processing symbols of certain shapes but has no semantics the symbols lack meaning: we interpret the symbols. However, there is an important difference in background theory. For Searle explicitly assumes the basic worldview of natural science, holding that consciousness is part of nature.

    But Husserl explicitly brackets that assumption, and later phenomenologists—including Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty—seem to seek a certain sanctuary for phenomenology beyond the natural sciences.

    And yet phenomenology itself should be largely neutral about further theories of how experience arises, notably from brain activity. Since the late s, and especially the late s, a variety of writers working in philosophy of mind have focused on the fundamental character of consciousness, ultimately a phenomenological issue. Does consciousness always and essentially involve self-consciousness, or consciousness-of-consciousness, as Brentano, Husserl, and Sartre held in varying detail?

    If so, then every act of consciousness either includes or is adjoined by a consciousness-of-that-consciousness. Does that self-consciousness take the form of an internal self-monitoring? If so, is that monitoring of a higher order, where each act of consciousness is joined by a further mental act monitoring the base act? Or is such monitoring of the same order as the base act, a proper part of the act without which the act would not be conscious?

    A variety of models of this self-consciousness have been developed, some explicitly drawing on or adapting views in Brentano, Husserl, and Sartre. The philosophy of mind may be factored into the following disciplines or ranges of theory relevant to mind: Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced, analyzing the structure—the types, intentional forms and meanings, dynamics, and certain enabling conditions—of perception, thought, imagination, emotion, and volition and action.

    Neuroscience studies the neural activities that serve as biological substrate to the various types of mental activity, including conscious experience.

    Neuroscience will be framed by evolutionary biology explaining how neural phenomena evolved and ultimately by basic physics explaining how biological phenomena are grounded in physical phenomena. Here lie the intricacies of the natural sciences.

    Part of what the sciences are accountable for is the structure of experience, analyzed by phenomenology. Cultural analysis studies the social practices that help to shape or serve as cultural substrate of the various types of mental activity, including conscious experience, typically manifest in embodied action.

    Here we study the import of language and other social practices, including background attitudes or assumptions, sometimes involving particular political systems. Ontology of mind studies the ontological type of mental activity in general, ranging from perception which involves causal input from environment to experience to volitional action which involves causal output from volition to bodily movement.

    Phenomenology offers descriptive analyses of mental phenomena, while neuroscience and wider biology and ultimately physics offers models of explanation of what causes or gives rise to mental phenomena. Cultural theory offers analyses of social activities and their impact on experience, including ways language shapes our thought, emotion, and motivation. And ontology frames all these results within a basic scheme of the structure of the world, including our own minds.

    The ontological distinction among the form, appearance, and substrate of an activity of consciousness is detailed in D. Meanwhile, from an epistemological standpoint, all these ranges of theory about mind begin with how we observe and reason about and seek to explain phenomena we encounter in the world. And that is where phenomenology begins. Moreover, how we understand each piece of theory, including theory about mind, is central to the theory of intentionality, as it were, the semantics of thought and experience in general.

    And that is the heart of phenomenology. Phenomenology in Contemporary Consciousness Theory Phenomenological issues, by any other name, have played a prominent role in very recent philosophy of mind. Amplifying the theme of the previous section, we note two such issues: the form of inner awareness that ostensibly makes a mental activity conscious, and the phenomenal character of conscious cognitive mental activity in thought, and perception, and action.

    This subjective phenomenal character of consciousness is held to be constitutive or definitive of consciousness. What is the form of that phenomenal character we find in consciousness? A prominent line of analysis holds that the phenomenal character of a mental activity consists in a certain form of awareness of that activity, an awareness that by definition renders it conscious.

    Since the s a variety of models of that awareness have been developed. As noted above, there are models that define this awareness as a higher-order monitoring, either an inner perception of the activity a form of inner sense per Kant or inner consciousness per Brentano , or an inner thought about the activity. A further model analyzes such awareness as an integral part of the experience, a form of self-representation within the experience.

    Again, see Kriegel and Williford eds. A somewhat different model comes arguably closer to the form of self-consciousness sought by Brentano, Husserl, and Sartre. That form of awareness is held to be a constitutive element of the experience that renders it conscious. This reflexive awareness is not, then, part of a separable higher-order monitoring, but rather built into consciousness per se.

    On the modal model, this awareness is part of the way the experience unfolds: subjectively, phenomenally, consciously. This model is elaborated in D. Whatever may be the precise form of phenomenal character, we would ask how that character distributes over mental life. What is phenomenal in different types of mental activity? Here arise issues of cognitive phenomenology. Or is phenomenality present also in cognitive experiences of thinking such-and-such, or of perception bearing conceptual as well as sensory content, or also in volitional or conative bodily action?

    These issues are explored in Bayne and Montague eds. A restrictive view holds that only sensory experience has a proper phenomenal character, a what-it-is-like.

    Seeing a color, hearing a tone, smelling an odor, feeling a pain—these types of conscious experience have a phenomenal character, but no others do, on this view. A somewhat more expansive view would hold that perceptual experience has a distinctive phenomenal character even where sensation is informed by concepts. Now, a much more expansive view would hold that every conscious experience has a distinctive phenomenal character.

    Classical phenomenologists like Husserl and Merleau-Ponty surely assumed an expansive view of phenomenal consciousness. Even Heidegger, while de-emphasizing consciousness the Cartesian sin!

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